Â There are immune theories for depression (1). However, there is a chance that the immune system may be reacting to psychiatric medication.Â Nevertheless there is useful information in Ref. 1, but it is on an academic level. Ref. 2 is similar. However, findings like these could be drug artifacts. Studies need to be done on patients who were never medicated with psychiatric drugs. Such patients are hard to find.
Â Ref. 3 is a study of depression. Unfortunately the drug interferon can cause depression as a side effect (4). This happens because the drug increases tryptophan metabolism in the kynurenine pathway (4). This brilliant article was produced by the Psychiatry
and Inflammation Program, Department of Psychiatry
, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. email@example.com
“Depression is a frequent side effect of interferon (IFN)-alpha therapy of hepatitis C (HCV) and is of great relevance with regard to adherence, compliance, and premature therapy discontinuation.” Oxenkrug et al (4)Â
Â This confirms Ref. 5. Ref. 5 is consistent with an old British theory linking depression and abnormal tryptophan metabolism (6).
Endrocrine Glands and the Central Nervous System
Â The above diagram shows most hormones that are important to the central nervous system. Insulin is a hormone that is important to the CNS, but it is not shown here because it is in the pancreas. The adrenal glands also secrete hormones that are important to the CNS.
Russian Research on Anxiety
Â Dr. Lapin of Russia has done brilliant work on anxiety (7, 8). The Russian work is consistent with Western work on depression (9, 10).
Â Ref. 11 supports immune theories.
Â Ref. 12 discusses schizophrenia. Ref. 13 discusses childhood-onset schizophrenia.
Â Just say NO to nitrous oxide.
The Orthomolecular Approach
Â The late Roger Williams was one of the first to advocate for the use of nutrients as treatments (14). Williams advocated the use of nutrition to treat alcoholism (15). Williams influenced the late, great Linus Pauling. Ref. 16 presents a brilliant theory for alcoholism. This is similar to my own theory for mental illness.
Â The work of Williams was useful for both physical health and mental health (17). To assume that everbody easily gets their nutrients from foods may be a mistake. Certain important nutrients are lost during cooking (17). Williams endorsed Linus Pauling’s approach (18, 19).
Â My view is that the approach advocated by Linus Pauling and Roger Williams is the correct approach (20). Psychiatric drugs have been very problematic. The newer drugs are very expensive. They can cost up to $600 a bottle.
Â Williams (21) has also advocated the use of nutrition to fight cancer and to prevent it. More about this very important issue will be discussed in future articles. Do not be fooled by the Food & Drug Administration. They go after supplements but turn a blind eye towards disastrous problems with drugs. The reason why this happens is that top doctors in the FDA are in a conflict-of-interest situation with the drug companies. They get money from the drug companies.
1. Dantzer R, O’Connor JC, Freund GG, Johnson RW, Kelley KW. From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9:46â€“56. doi: 10.1038/nrn2297. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
2. Steiner J, Bielau H, Brisch R, Danos P, Ullrich O, Mawrin C, Bernstein HG, Bogerts B. Immunological aspects in the neurobiology of suicide: Elevated microglial density in schizophrenia and depression is associated with suicide. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42:151â€“157. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.10.013. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
3. Myint AM, Kim YK. Cytokine-serotonin interaction through IDO: a neurodegeneration hypothesis of depression. Med Hypotheses. 2003;61:519â€“525. doi: 10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00207-X. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
4. J Neural Transm. 2011 Feb;118(2):271-4. Epub 2010 Dec 16. Interferon-gamma (+874) T/A genotypes and risk of IFN-alpha-induced depression. [PubMed]
5. Capuron L, Miller AH. Cytokines and psychopathology: lessons from interferon-alpha. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56:819â€“824.
6. Coppen A. Depressed states and indolealkylamines. Adv Pharmacol. 1968;6(Pt B):283â€“291. [PubMed]
7.Â Lapin IP. Kynurenines and anxiety. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;398:191â€“194. [PubMed]
8. Lapin IP. Neurokynurenines (NEKY) as common neurochemical links of stress and anxiety. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;527:121â€“125. [PubMed]
9. Leonard BE, Myint A. The psychoneuroimmunology of depression. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:165â€“175. [PubMed] [PubMed]
10. Loftis JM, Hauser P. The phenomenology and treatment of interferon-induced depression. J Affect Disord. 2004;82:175â€“190.
11.Â Bayer TA, Buslei R, Havas L, Falkai P. Evidence for activation of microglia in patients with psychiatric illnesses. Neurosci Lett. 1999;271:126â€“128. [PubMed]
12. Doorduin J, De Vries EFJ, Willemsen ATM, de Groot JC, Dierck RA, Klein HC. Schizophrenia related psychosis is associated with focal neuroinflammation: a (11C)-PL11195 positron emission tomography study. Neurol Psychiatry Brain Res . 2009;(1):14. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
13. Gogtay N, Lu A, Leow AD, Klunder AD, Lee AD, Chavez A, Greenstein D, Giedd JN, Toga AW, Rapoport JL, Thompson PM. Three-dimensional brain growth abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia visualized by using tensor-based morphometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15979â€“15984.
14. Williams, R. J., “Vitamins as Medicinal Agents,” J. Chem. Ed., 37, 177-8 (1960).
15.Â Williams, R. J., “Fundamental Considerations Relating Alcoholism to Biochemistry and Nutrition,” in Biochemical and Nutritional Aspects of Alcoholism, C. D. Smithers Foundation and Clayton Foundation Biochemical Inst., Univ. Texas, Austin, 1964, 6-16.
16. Roach, M. K. and Williams, R. J., “Impaired and Inadequate Glucose Metabolism in the Brain as an Underlying Cause of Alcoholism–An Hypothesis,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 56, 566-571 (1966). (Available at PubMedCentral)
17. Cheldelin, V. H., Woods, A. M. and Williams, R. J., “Losses of B Vitamins Due to Cooking of Foods,” J. Nutrition, 26, 477-85 (1943).
18. Williams, R. J. (with technical assistance of Chas. W. Bode), “Should the Science-based Food Industry be Expected to Advance?”, in Orthomolecular Psychiatry, D. Hawkins and L. Pauling, eds., W. H. Freeman & Co., 1972, 316-324. (No known electronic link)
19. Williams, R. J., “‘Supernutrition’ as a Strategy for the Control of Disease,” J. Orthomolecular Psych., 1, 98- 103 (1972). (No known electronic link)
20. Williams, R. J., “Method Against Madness” [on mental disease], Texas Monthly, April 1974, 33, 35. (Available through subscription at Texas Monthly)
21.Â Williams, R. J., “The Neglect of Nutritional Science in Cancer Research,” Congressional Record, Vol. 120, No. 157, October 16, 1974, S 19204-S 19206 (introduced by Senator Hubert H. Humphrey). (No known electronic link)
Classical Anatomy Drawing
Â This image is from a 19th century French anatomy atlas. I selected it because I liked the coronal view of the brain. The lateral ventricles can be seen as two symmetrical dark areas.
This view is from the front of the cadaver. The drawing is presented courtesy of the National Library of Medicine of the US.
Â These images are presented courtesy ofÂ Public Domain Clipart except for the classical anatomy drawing.