Dr. Klein has put forward a lactate theory for panic disorder. Lactate infusions have been shown to induce panic attacks. Klein’s theory is that the brain has a suffocation alarm system based on the lactate level. If the lactate level gets too high, as it would during suffocation, the alarm goes off. In the case of panic disorder, it is a false alarm. There is no suffocation. The lactate is high due to a metabolic error.