Â I have been criticized for using old references. However, Alzheimer’s initial paper in 1906 on the disease which now bears his name is still valid! It has been confirmed many times! I do sometimes use old references because the drugs which are now used can introduce artifacts in basic research. Basic research should be done on unmedicated patients.
Â Depression has been a popular diagnosis in England. In the US schizophrenia is more fashionable. The same person diagnosed as having schizophrenia in the US has been diagnosed as depression in the UK! Reference 1Â is by a UK group.
Â This diagnosis is popular in Cuba, Russia, and all over the world. A Cuban group led by Mesa published a report in Rev. Neurol. 2001; 33: 619-23. This report used electron microscopy to study the brains of schizophrenics. Nuclear bodies, membrane cell proliferation, etc. were found. They also have published reporets in Spanish.
Â The Cuban group found increased glycogen, vacuoles, membrane alterations, morphological alterations, etc in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The platelets are abnormal.
Â Chicken embryos were inoculated with CSF from schizophrenics. The chicks came out badly abnormal. This demonstrated an unknown toxic factor in the CSF.
Â They reported a “biological test” for schizophrenia. This test involved the platelets. Platelets are also called “thrombocytes”. The platelets were “giant” in size. Reference 2 is by Mesa. Mesa also has a Powerpoint presentation on the Internet at www.wpanet.org. This website is run by the World Psychiatric Association. This presentation was published in 2004.
Â Kessler et al published a microscopy study of platelets in schizophrenia and dementia. This is reference 3.
Â These are fairly recent references, so maybe they will satisfy some of my critics. Old references are often still valid. New references sometimes need to withstand the test of time as Alzheimer has.
1. Wood, K. et al, “Tryptophan accumulation by blood platelets of depressed patients,” J Neural Transm Suppl. 1979;(15):161-3.
2. Mesa, C. S., “Electron microscopic studies of brain tissue in psychosis,” Biol. Psychiatry 1986; 5: 1092-1094.
3. Kessler, A. et al, “Number of platelet dense granules varies with schizophrenia and dementia,” Dementia 1995; 6: 330-333.